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Animation | Page 1
12 Principles of Animation | 1

Squash & Stretch

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The 12 principles of animation were first introduced by Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation, which was originally released in 1981. In this book, Johnston and Thomas examine the work of leading Disney animators from the 1930s and onwards, and boil their approach down to 12 basic principles.


The 12 Principles

  • 1. Squash & Stretch
  • 2. Anticipation
  • 3. Staging
  • 4. Straight ahead action and pose to pose
  • 5. Follow through and overlapping action
  • 6. Slow in and slow out
  • 7. Arc
  • 8. Secondary action
  • 9. Timing
  • 10. Exaggeration
  • 11. Solid drawing
  • 12. Appeal


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